Marijuana

Lab Notes – Spring 2018

Early Dependency Leads to Lower Achievement

cannabis

A new study has found that young adults who are dependent on marijuana and alcohol are less likely to achieve adult life goals. UConn Health scientists from the psychiatry department analyzed data from the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) and found that these substance-dependent young adults go on to have lower levels of education, decreased rates of full-time employment, less marriage potential, and less social economic potential. The study, presented at the American Public Health Association 2017 Annual Meeting & Expo, also found that marijuana and alcohol dependency may have a more severe effect on young men, affecting them in all areas of measure versus women, who were less likely to obtain a college degree and had lower economic potential, but were equally likely to get married or obtain full-time employment.


Biodegradable Sensor Monitors Pressure, Disappears

hand holding tiny biodegradable sensor

A patent is pending for a biodegradable pressure sensor developed by UConn engineers that could help doctors monitor chronic lung disease, swelling of the brain, and other medical conditions, before dissolving harmlessly in a patient’s body. The small, flexible sensor is made of medically safe materials already approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in surgical sutures, bone grafts, and medical implants. It is designed to replace existing implantable pressure sensors that have potentially toxic components and require an additional invasive procedure to remove, extending patients’ recovery time and increasing the risk of infection. The research was funded by a National Institutes of Health grant and funds from UConn’s Academic Plan and is featured online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


DNA Becomes Harder to Access as We Age

A comparison between the immune cells of seniors ages 65 and over and those of adults between the ages of 22 and 40 has revealed that DNA changes with age, impacting how the immune system renews itself. In the sample from the aging population, chromosomes appeared more tightly coiled, making it difficult for cells to access the DNA that might be critical in defending our bodies against diseases, including flu and some cancers. In contrast, the regions of chromosome coding for genes associated with cell death and inflammation appeared to be more open in the elderly than in the young. The study, conducted by a team from UConn Health and the Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, appeared in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

DNA strand


Portable Microscope a Game Changer in the Field

portable microscope

UConn optical engineers have developed a portable holographic microscope that enables medical professionals to identify diseased cells and other biological specimens in the field in just minutes. The detailed holograms generated by the microscope can be used by medical workers attempting to identify malaria patients in remote areas of Africa and Asia, where the disease is endemic. It also can be used in hospitals and other clinical settings for rapid analysis of cell morphology and cell physiology associated with cancer, hepatitis, HIV, sickle cell disease, heart disease, and other illnesses. The device was recently featured in a paper published by Applied Optics.

Lab Notes – Summer 2017

Melanoma’s Signature

illustration of a melanoma cell

Dangerous melanomas likely to metastasize have a distinctive molecular signature, UConn Health researchers reported in the February issue of Laboratory Investigation. Melanomas are traditionally rated on their thickness; very thin cancers can be surgically excised and require no further treatment, while thick ones are deemed invasive and require additional therapies. But melanomas of intermediate thickness are harder to judge. The researchers measured micro-RNAs produced by melanoma cells and compared them with the micro-RNAs in healthy skin. Micro-RNAs regulate protein expression in cells. The team found that melanomas with the worst outcomes produced lots of micro-RNA21 compared to melanomas of similar thickness with better outcomes. In the future this molecular signature could help dermatologists decide how aggressively to treat borderline melanomas.


Chili Pepper and Marijuana Calm the Gut

The medical benefits of marijuana are much debated, but what about those of chili peppers? It turns out that when eaten, both interact with the same receptor in our stomachs, according to UConn Health research published in the April 24 issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The scientists found feeding mice chili peppers meant less gut inflammation and cured those with Type 1 diabetes. Why? The chemical capsaicin in the peppers bonds to a receptor found in cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract, causing the cells to make anandamide — a compound chemically akin to the cannabinoids in marijuana. The research could lead to new therapies for diabetes and colitis and opens up intriguing questions about the relationship between the immune system, the gut, and the brain.

illustration of chili peppers and marijuana in the gut


Isolating Their Target

brain scan

Brain cells of individuals with Angelman syndrome fail to mature, disrupting the ability of the cells to form proper synaptic connections and causing a cascade of other developmental deficits that result in the rare neurogenetic disorder, according to UConn Health research. Neuroscientist Eric Levine’s team used stem cells derived from Angelman patients to identify the disorder’s underlying neuronal defects, an important step in the ongoing search for potential treatments and a possible cure. Previously, scientists had relied primarily on mouse models that mimic the disorder. The findings were published in the April 24 issue of Nature Communications. While Levine’s team investigates the physiology behind the disorder, UConn developmental geneticist Stormy Chamberlain’s team researches the genetic mechanisms that cause Angelman.


The Cornea’s Blindness Defense

eye

The formation of tumors in the eye can cause blindness. But for some reason our corneas have a natural ability to prevent that from happening. Led by Royce Mohan, UConn Health neuroscientists believe they have found the reason, findings that will be detailed in September’s Journal of Neuroscience Research. They link the tumor resistance to a pair of catalytic enzymes called extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. When ERK1/2 are overactivated in a specific type of cell, the “anti-cancer privilege of the cornea’s supportive tissue can be overcome,” says Mohan. That happens in the rare disease neurofibromatosis-1. “These findings may inform research toward developing better strategies for the prevention of corneal neurofibromas,” says Dr. George McKie, cornea program director at the National Eye Institute, which funded the study.